Directed Pilot Application & Practice .75 Parachutes
Postflight critique .15 Weather Briefing
Total 1.50 Model airplane
Objective: Partial Loops/Rolls
Student should exhibit proper knowledge and use of controls in pitching up, maintaining wings level, use of outside cues to maintain wings level and proper heading throughout looping portion, recovery straight & level and on proper heading
Select safe altitude - no less than 2000 feet AGL
Establish 160 KTS in MX2, or proper speed in other aircraft
Briskly pull to 4-5 Gz and hold back pressure to approximately 11:00 position inverted, ease back pressure slightly to "float" top of loop, then increase back pressure again (see note) at approximately the 1:00 position until at proper 45 degree angle for ½ Cuban 8.
Use right rudder as necessary to maintain heading
Perform proper roll, with proper technique, at correct time in figure
Note: There is typically very little "float" used during an immelman as the roll is initiated when the aircraft reaches inverted - all other requirements are the same
Minimum safe altitude awareness
Flight control utilization and coordination - loops & rolls
Proper division of attention
Forces acting on aircraft and controls required at various angles of pitch: 0-160 degrees, 160 - 200 degrees, 200 to 360 degrees
Proper use of rudder
Stall recognition & avoidance
Soft pull of less than 4-5 Gz
Unintended bank during pull
No float at top of loop, except immleman
Soft pull in 2nd ½ of loop
Tall, oval shape
No line before roll in 1/2 Cuban 8
No energy for roll in immelman
Explain & discuss the lesson objective & required knowledge criteria, and larger Gz forces than past experiences
Start with 1/2 Cuban 8 and instruct that loops should start with a brisk pull of 4-5 Gz and hold until near top of loop.
Explain "float" at top of loop and then increasing pull to finish loop at correct attitude, 45 degree inverted angle angle in 1/2 Cuban 8, or level flight at top of Immelman
Establish the proper airspeed, 160 KTS.
Pull briskly to 4-5Gz and hold back pressure until approx 160 degree position.
Ease off back pressure between 160 degree and 200 degree pitch angle, and then increase back pressure to finish looping portion at 45 degree inverted angle before roll
Perform rolls at proper point in figure demonstrating control inputs at varying airspeeds
Explain loop & roll differences between 1/2 Cuban 8 and Immelman; 1/2 Cuban 8 has line before roll on ionverted 45 degree line, while Immelman has roll immedtaely after loop in level flight
Conduct a post flight critique to review procedures, techniques and preview the next lesson
Participate in discussion of objective, listen, ask questions
Preview this outline prior to the flight lesson
Practice and experience 1/2 Cuban 8 and Immelman including brisk initial pull, float at top as necessary, and Gz at finish, recognizing higher Gz forces and the 0 Gz environment at inverted flight
Pilot can explain and demonstrate partial loops including proper pitch control and float, correcting for torque and P factor while maintaining flight orientation throughout the performance of partial loops and adhering to the above criteria. Additionally the pilot can demostrate the more complex requirments of looping and rolling combinations, and the differences between 1/2 Cuban 8 and Immeman.