Aerobatic Lesson Plans
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5. Aerobatic Lesson Plan - Partial Loops/Rolls - Cuban 8, Immelman

Pilot:                                        Date:                   

   Schedule:                                              Equipment Required:
Preflight Instruction                                    .30            Aerobatic Airplane
CFI Demo                                                   .30            Aircraft POH
Directed Pilot Application & Practice       .75            Parachutes
Postflight critique                                       .15            Weather Briefing
Total                                                         1.50            Model airplane

Objective: Partial Loops/Rolls

Student should exhibit proper knowledge and use of controls in pitching up, maintaining wings level, use of outside cues to maintain wings level and proper heading throughout looping portion, recovery straight & level and on proper heading    

  1. Select safe altitude - no less than 2000 feet AGL
  2. Establish 160 KTS in MX2, or proper speed in other aircraft
  3. Briskly pull to 4-5 Gz and hold back pressure to approximately 11:00 position inverted, ease back pressure slightly to "float" top of loop, then increase back pressure again (see note) at approximately the 1:00 position until at proper 45 degree angle for Cuban 8.                      
  4. Use right rudder as necessary to maintain heading
  5. Perform proper roll, with proper technique, at correct time in figure

Note:  There is typically very little "float" used during an immelman as the roll is initiated when the aircraft reaches inverted - all other requirements are the same

  1. Proper Airspeed
  2. Minimum safe altitude awareness
  3. Flight control utilization and coordination - loops & rolls
  4. Proper division of attention
  5. Forces acting on aircraft and controls required at various angles of pitch: 0-160 degrees, 160 - 200 degrees, 200 to 360 degrees
  6. Proper use of rudder
  7. Stall recognition & avoidance

Common Errors
  1. Soft pull of less than 4-5 Gz
  2. Unintended bank during pull
  3. Inadvertent stall/spin
  4. No float at top of loop, except immleman
  5. Soft pull in 2nd of loop
  6. Tall, oval shape
  7. No line before roll in 1/2 Cuban 8
  8. No energy for roll in immelman

Instructor Actions
  1. Explain & discuss the lesson objective & required knowledge criteria, and larger Gz forces than past experiences
  2. Start with 1/2 Cuban 8 and instruct that loops should start with a brisk pull of 4-5 Gz and hold until near top of loop.
  3. Explain "float" at top of loop and then increasing pull to finish loop at correct attitude,  45 degree inverted angle angle in 1/2 Cuban 8, or level flight at top of Immelman
  4. Establish the proper airspeed, 160 KTS.
  5. Pull briskly to 4-5Gz and hold back pressure until approx 160 degree position.
  6. Ease off back pressure between 160 degree and 200 degree pitch angle, and then increase back pressure to finish looping portion at 45 degree inverted angle before roll
  7. Perform rolls at proper point in figure demonstrating control inputs at varying airspeeds
  8. Explain loop & roll differences between 1/2 Cuban 8 and Immelman; 1/2 Cuban 8 has line before roll on ionverted 45 degree line, while Immelman has roll immedtaely after loop in level flight
  9. Conduct a post flight critique to review procedures, techniques and preview the next lesson

Pilot Actions
  1. Participate in discussion of objective, listen, ask questions
  2. Preview this outline prior to the flight lesson
  3. Practice and experience 1/2 Cuban 8 and Immelman including brisk initial pull, float at top as necessary, and Gz at finish, recognizing higher Gz forces and the 0 Gz environment at inverted flight

Completion Standards
Pilot can explain and demonstrate partial loops including proper pitch control and float, correcting for torque and P factor while maintaining flight orientation throughout the performance of partial loops and adhering to the above criteria.  Additionally the pilot can demostrate the more complex requirments of looping and rolling combinations, and the differences between 1/2 Cuban 8 and Immeman.