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4. Aerobatic Lesson Plan - Loops

Pilot:                                        Date:                   

   Schedule:                                               Equipment Required:
Preflight Instruction                                   .30            Aerobatic Airplane
CFI Demo                                                  .30            Aircraft POH
Directed Pilot Application & Practice       .75            Parachutes
Postflight critique                                      .15            Weather Briefing
Total                                                        1.50             Model airplane


Objective: Full Loops

Student should exhibit proper knowledge and use of controls in pitching up, maintaining wings level, use of outside cues to maintain wings level and proper heading throughout entire loop, recovery straight & level and on heading and starting altitude.

  1. Select safe altitude - no less than 2000 feet AGL
  2. Establish at least 160 KTS in MX2 at full throttle, or proper speed in other aircraft
  3. Briskly pull to 4-5 Gz and hold back pressure to approximately 11:00 position inverted, ease back pressure slightly to "float" top of loop, then increase back pressure again at approximately the 1:00 position until level again
  4. Use right rudder as necessary to maintain headingq    Maintain wings level throughout figure
  5. Aircraft should finish loop at entry altitude +/- 100 feet and on heading +/- 10 degrees

Elements
  1. Proper Airspeed
  2. Minimum safe altitude awareness
  3. Flight control utilization and coordination
  4. Proper division of attention
  5. Forces acting on aircraft and controls required at various angles of pitch: 0-160 degrees, 160 - 200 degrees, 200 to 360 degrees
  6. Proper use of rudder
  7. Stall recognition & avoidance

Common Errors
  1. Soft pull of less than 4-5 Gz
  2. Unintended bank during pull
  3. Inadvertent stall/spin
  4. No float at top of loop
  5. Soft pull in 2nd of loop
  6. Finish much higher or lower
  7. Tall, oval shape

Instructor Actions
  1. Explain & discuss the lesson objective & required knowledge criteria, and larger Gz forces than past experiences
  2. Instruct that loops should start with a brisk pull of 4-5 Gz and hold until near top of loop.
  3. Explain "float" at top of loop and then increasing pull to finish loop at starting altitude
  4. Establish the proper airspeed, at least 160 KTS, at full throttle.
  5. Pull briskly to 4-5Gz and hold back pressure until approx 160 degree position.
  6. Ease off back pressure between 160 degrees and 200 degrees pitch angle, and then increase back pressure to finish at 4-5 Gz straight and level.
  7. Demonstrate partial loops to 90 and 180 degrees - No difference in technique
  8. Conduct a post flight critique to review procedures, techniques and preview the next lesson

Pilot Actions
  1. Participate in discussion of objective, listen, ask questions
  2. Preview this outline prior to the flight lesson
  3. Practice and experience loops including brisk initial pull, float at top, and increasing Gz at finish, recognizing higher Gz forces and the 0 Gz environment at inverted flight

Completion Standards
Pilot can explain and demonstrate loops including proper pitch control and float, correcting for torque and P factor while maintaining flight orientation throughout the performance of loop and adhering to the above criteria.