Students should be required to demonstrate specific stall maneuvers that fall into two categories, depending on student level:
1.        Proficiency stalls are intended for student practice and skill development.
2.        Demonstration stalls are also meant for student practice, but you demonstrate these stalls mainly as an in-flight portion of stall/spin awareness training.

The flight instructor PTS lists these stalls, categorizes them and expands the knowledge and skill requirements associated with successful performance. Like other flight maneuvers, stalls should be performed at an altitude that allows for recovery above 1,500 feet AGL.

For non aerobatic aircraft, training in the power-on stall and the crossed-control stall are the areas of emphasis in-flight, because they are the most commonly associated with the risk of the stall/spin accident and can easily be correlated with traffic pattern hazards.

The takeoff, departure, and the go-around are the danger zones for the power-on stalls; the turn to final approach is the danger zone for power-off stalls, especially in the crossed-control condition. Remember that a secondary stall can occur any time that a stall recovery is poorly executed.

Student pilots should be advised that demonstration stalls are not to be practiced in solo flight.
               
               "Experience is that marvelous thing that enables you to recognize a mistake
       when you make it again." - Franklin P. Jones        

 
During a power-off stall, a gliding turn is used to simulate the approach-to-landing danger zone in which a crossed-control stall may occur. Show your CFI students that, as in slow flight, an imminent stall can be avoided with the release of back pressure and/or application of power. Stress that at low altitudes and for practice, students should always use full power, and recover with smooth control inputs.

By permitting the stall to occur in a slipping turn, you can demonstrate that the wing on the outside of the turn may stall first, and dip downward abruptly. The result is that the airplane rolls out of the turn during the stall, and recovery can be initiated by releasing back-pressure and using coordinated aileron and rudder control.


An elevator trim stall is most likely to occur during a rejected landing, as the pilot adds power to attempt a go-around. In this case, the elevator trim is adjusted for the configuration and slow speed with considerable nose-up trim. The normal tendency is for the airplane to pitch up, and will continue until a stall occurs, or forward control pressure is applied to counteract the strong nose-up trim forces.

Elevator trim stalls are normally demonstrated safely at altitude, with the airplane configured and trimmed for a typical final approach to landing. Emphasize to your students that forward elevator pressure must be used to establish the correct pitch attitude. This produces the manufacturer's recommended rejected landing climb speed, which is often lower than Vy.





The secondary stall normally occurs as a result of increasing the angle of attack beyond the critical angle during stall recovery, when the aircraft has not yet regained sufficient airspeed. For example, a secondary stall can occur when the trim is not reset during the recovery from an elevator trim stall, and the airplane is allowed to balloon after power is added.

As students become more proficient in performing stalls as maneuvers, they may become complacent and react more casually to an impending stall. You should emphasize the hazards associated with stalls at low altitude, and stress early stall recognition and recovery.

To enter a spin, the airplane must first be stalled. Although both wings are in a stalled condition during a spin, one wing is stalled more than the other.
               
REVIEW MATERIALS:
Stall/Spin Awareness Excerpt: FAA-S-8081-14 D.TASK: SPIN AWARENESS REFERENCE:AC 61-21, AC 61-67
Pilot's Operating Handbook
FAA-Approved Airplane Flight Manual

Objective: To determine that the applicant exhibits knowledge of the elements related to spin awareness by explaining:
1.  Flight situations where unintentional spins occur.
2.  The technique used to recognize and recover from unintentional spins.
3.  The recommended spin recovery procedure for the airplane used for the practical test.        
               
No discussion of teaching flight maneuvers is complete without a review of stall/spin awareness. If all CFI students receive a comprehensive education on stall/spin awareness, and they in turn, orient their students properly, the benefits are enormous in terms of saving lives. For this reason, stall/spin awareness is a very important part of pilot training.

The objective of stall/spin awareness training is intended to instill in students' minds a trigger, or early warning, that causes them to react to potential stall/spin situations in an immediate, positive way. Many stall/spin accidents, especially those in an airport traffic pattern, can be attributed to pilot distraction while maneuvering at slow airspeeds close to the ground. While it is important for students to describe a spin, it is far more critical for them to understand:
·        the causes of a spin,
·        the warnings of an approaching stall, and
·        how to recover if they inadvertently enter a spin.

Spin training is required for CFI students, and must include ground and flight training as specified in AC61-67C. Once the training is complete, you should provide a logbook endorsement. Sample endorsements can be found in AC61-65, Certification: Pilots and Flight and Ground Instructors.
               
       "The highest art form of all is a human being in control of himself and
          his airplane in flight, urging the spirit of a machine to match his own." - Richard Bach        
               




The FAA recommends the following ground-training subjects for stall/spin awareness:
1. Definitions
·        Angle of attack
·        Airspeed
·        Configuration
·        V-speeds
·        Load factor
·        Center of gravity (CG)
·        Weight
·        Altitude and temperature
·        Snow, ice, or frost on the wings
·        Turbulence

2. Realistic distractions

3. Stall recognition

4. Types of stalls
·        Power-off (approach to landing)
·        Power-on (departure stalls)
·        Accelerated

5. Stall recovery

6. Secondary stall

7. Spins
·        Weight and balance
·        Primary causes

8. Types of spins
·        Incipient spin
·        Fully developed spin
·        Flat spin

9. Spin Recovery



If you execute a turn with excessive or insufficient rudder or aileron and exceed the critical angle of attack for your airspeed, you are risking an inadvertent spin unless you promptly initiate stall recovery.
There are several factors which can contribute to stall/spin accidents. Among these are:
·        Load factor
·        Snow, ice, or frost on the wings
·        weight and balance (center of gravity)
·        Aircraft configuration
·        Turbulence
·        Pilot inattention due to distraction
Experienced solely or in combination, these factors can have deadly consequences. To adequately prepare your students to meet PTS stall/spin awareness criteria, you must provide them with a thorough knowledge of these possible contributing factors and how they affect aerodynamics to cause a spin.

Parachutes are not required during spin training when working towards a certificate or rating.
Recognition of a stall leading to an unintentional spin may not be easy when a pilot's attention has been diverted to another task. However, the entry of an unintentional spin is quite dramatic and can take an inattentive pilot by surprise.
Students should be familiar with the operating characteristics and the standard operating procedures for spin recovery in the POH of the airplane they are flying. The FAA has outlined a basic spin recovery technique consisting of six steps that can be followed in the absence of a manufacturer's recommended procedure:

1.        Close the throttle, to eliminate power and minimize loss of altitude.
2.        Neutralize the ailerons and determine the direction of the spin.
3.        Input full opposite rudder to stop the rotation.
4.        As the rotation slows, smoothly move the elevator forward to approximately the neutral position.
5.        Neutralize the rudder to avoid entering a spin in the opposite direction.
6.        Gradually apply enough elevator pressure to return to level flight. Caution should be exercised when applying aft elevator pressure during the recovery to avoid a secondary stall.









Jason is a private pilot departing from a remote airport with a short runway with trees at both ends. He reviewed and calculated his take-off performance data before starting the engine. Distracted by thoughts of a short-field takeoff with an obstacle, he failed to reset the elevator trim during his pre-departure checklist.
Just after takeoff, the airplane pitches up dramatically. He is now in the danger zone, and must react immediately to the imminent elevator trim stall. Pushing the yoke forward, he sees nothing but trees. In some flight scenarios there is no margin for error and the consequence may be harsh. There is no substitute for proper training, knowledge and skill.


A. 23.4% Takeoff/Initial Climb

B. 3.3% Climb

C. 15.7% Cruise

D. 2.6% Descent

E. 13.0% Maneuvering

F. 9.7% Approach

G. 24.1% Landing
8.2% Phase of flight not specified
This illustration shows the percentage of stall/spin accidents, which occur in various phases of flight. The majority of accidents occur in only 4 percent of the total duration of flight time, when approaching or departing airports. The workload is greatest at these times, which increases the chance of error.


REVIEW: Spin Hazards Due To Stalls
Most stall/spin accidents occur in the traffic pattern. It is important to recognize that the remainder of these accidents are accounted for in maneuvering phases of flight, which include what we commonly know as "buzzing." In any case, a combination of low altitude and low airspeed is the culprit, which leads pilots into the danger zone.
During low altitude maneuvering, whether or not in the traffic pattern, there is little room for recovery from a full stall, let alone a spin. The lack of recovery altitude, however, is not the cause of these accidents. It is the lack of knowledge of the risks, lack of judgment to avoid the danger zone, and lack of skill to escape it.



               
       "It is possible to fly without motors, but not without knowledge and skill." - Wilbur Wright        
               

A stall/spin also is a distinct possibility if an attempt is made to return to the departure runway following a power failure shortly after takeoff. A curious perception of conditions grips the pilot in this circumstance. Apparently, before over-flying the end of the runway, the pilot does not consider turning back when a power failure occurs. The pilot correctly judges that he has to land on the remaining runway ahead, or on the terrain beyond. But after the runway end disappears beneath the nose, the imprudent pilot is deceived into thinking that having departed the airport boundary and with the entire runway surface behind, adequate altitude exists for safely reversing course and touching down. The steep turn used for such a maneuver can easily result in a crossed-control or accelerated stall.
If it is necessary to convince your students of its dangers, show them this maneuver at altitude. Show them that even with better-than-average pilot technique, the maneuver is costly in terms of altitude, distance, and controllability.


The crossed-control stall might also occur when a turn to final is overshot. The danger zone is entered when rudder is used to yaw the airplane toward the runway, and opposite aileron is applied to prevent the resulting over-banking tendency. It is the same mishandling of the controls as in the attempt to return to the runway following a power failure. Note that in both cases, remaining clear of the danger zone is a matter of judgment and pilot skill.
Students should understand the importance and purpose of stall maneuvers, and experience them before beginning traffic pattern work. The motivation to understand them is the need to recognize the approaching stall and recover to normal flight before a stall occurs, thus precluding the spin. A brief discussion of accident statistics may be a good way to convince the student of the relevance of this training.
A spin is defined by three distinct phases: the incipient phase, the fully developed phase and the recovery.

               
       REVIEW: Spin AerodynamicsCause and Phases of a Spin·        Stalled Condition - A spin starts from an uncoordinated stall. ·        Incipient Phase - Beginning or onset of the spin. The incipient spin can be initiated from almost any flight attitude during slow flight. ·        Fully Developed Phase - Autorotation marked by high rate of descent at a very slow airspeed. ·        Recovery - Requires specific control input as described in AC61-67B.        
               






Your students may already possess some knowledge, and many misconceptions, about spins. Some of your more advanced students may have performed spins. However, you will still need to review spin aerodynamics with all of your students. When applying for an initial flight instructor certificate, your CFI students need to accomplish spin training in accordance with section 61.183.
               
       "The reason birds can fly and we can't is simply that they have perfect faith, for to have faith is to have wings." - Sir James Matthew Barrie        
               
Your students need to understand that during an uncoordinated stall, the resulting roll and slip of the airplane creates a yawing moment, caused by the weathervane effect. This yawing moment in conjunction with the uncoordinated condition, causes the stall of one wing before another, which results in a roll. The ensuing roll will occur in the direction of the rudder, and is the precursor to the incipient phase of a spin. The combination of rolling, slipping, and yawing produces the autorotation characteristic of the spin.
1.        The yawing motion is due to the application of the left rudder and high induced drag on the left wing.
2.        The slip is due to crossed controls (left rudder, right aileron up.)
3.        The roll is due to a higher angle of attack on the left wing, causing it to stall before the right wing.
4.        The roll is due to differential lift. Since the right wing is not completely stalled, it produces some lift.
5.        Autorotation is due to differential lift. Since the left wing is completely stalled, it induces more drag and creates little lift.








INCIPIENT SPIN
·        Lasts about 4 to 6 seconds in light aircraft.
·        Approximately 2 turns.





FULLY DEVELOPED SPIN
·        Airspeed, vertical speed, and rate of rotation are stabilized.
·        Small training aircraft lose approximately 500 feet per 3 second turn.





RECOVERY
·        Wings regain lift.
·        Training aircraft usually recover in about 1/4 to 1/2 of a turn after anti-spin inputs are applied.



A spin induced by an uncoordinated stall is defined by three distinct phases: the incipient phase, the fully developed phase and recovery. In the incipient phase of a spin, the motions about the vertical and longitudinal axes are developing and changing. During the fully developed phase, the airspeed and motions are stabilized, producing a consistent cycle of rotation, and the flight path is nearly vertical.





When you introduce spins to your CFI students, keep in mind that your objective is broader than simply teaching your students spin safety. You should have your CFI students teach stall/spin awareness first, then demonstrate spin entries, spins, and spin recoveries. Caution should be exercised with regard to spin training. You should review aircraft categories and the applicability of spin certification.
One source of confusion stems from the fact that 14 CFR part 23 permits airplanes to be type-certified in more than one category.  As always, it is imperative that you and your students review the appropriate AFM or POH prior to conducting spin training in a particular airplane.
Aviation is changing rapidly and as an aviation instructor you must continue to develop your knowledge and skills in order to teach successfully in this dynamic environment. Your philosophy of teaching can remain unchanged throughout your career but in order to meet the needs of your students, the methods you use to deliver your lessons must be fluid and evolve to create a learning environment in which your students can flourish.
Safety of flight is a primary responsibility; when in the practice area you and your students must be vigilant for other aircraft. Making clearing turn reduces the risk of encountering conflicting traffic.
Your students will learn from what you say as well as from what you do, so being meticulous about flight safety will teach them to do the same.

Jason is a private pilot departing from a remote airport with a short runway with trees at both ends. He reviewed and calculated his take-off performance data before starting the engine. Distracted by thoughts of a short-field takeoff with an obstacle, he failed to reset the elevator trim during his pre-departure checklist.
Just after takeoff, the airplane pitches up dramatically. He is now in the danger zone, and must react immediately to the imminent elevator trim stall. Pushing the yoke forward, he sees nothing but trees. In some flight scenarios there is no margin for error and the consequence may be harsh. There is no substitute for proper training, knowledge and skill.



A stall/spin also is a distinct possibility if an attempt is made to return to the departure runway following a power failure shortly after takeoff. A curious perception of conditions grips the pilot in this circumstance. Apparently, before over-flying the end of the runway, the pilot does not consider turning back when a power failure occurs. The pilot correctly judges that he has to land on the remaining runway ahead, or on the terrain beyond. But after the runway end disappears beneath the nose, the imprudent pilot is deceived into thinking that having departed the airport boundary and with the entire runway surface behind, adequate altitude exists for safely reversing course and touching down. The steep turn used for such a maneuver can easily result in a crossed-control or accelerated stall.
If it is necessary to convince your students of its dangers, show them this maneuver at altitude. Show them that even with better-than-average pilot technique, the maneuver is costly in terms of altitude, distance, and controllability.

The crossed-control stall might also occur when a turn to final is overshot. The danger zone is entered when rudder is used to yaw the airplane toward the runway, and opposite aileron is applied to prevent the resulting over-banking tendency. It is the same mishandling of the controls as in the attempt to return to the runway following a power failure. Note that in both cases, remaining clear of the danger zone is a matter of judgment and pilot skill.

                       A. 23.4% Takeoff/Initial Climb        B. 3.3% Climb                        C. 15.7% Cruise

                       D. 2.6% Descent                                E. 13.0% Maneuvering            F. 9.7% Approach

                       G. 24.1% Landing                            (8.2% Phase of flight not specified)

This illustration shows the percentage of stall/spin accidents, which occur in various phases of flight. The majority of accidents occur in only 4 percent of the total duration of flight time, when approaching or departing airports. The workload is greatest at these times, which increases the chance of error.

REVIEW: Spin Hazards Due To Stalls
Most stall/spin accidents occur in the traffic pattern. It is important to recognize that the remainder of these accidents are accounted for in maneuvering phases of flight, which include what we commonly know as "buzzing." In any case, a combination of low altitude and low airspeed is the culprit, which leads pilots into the danger zone.
During low altitude maneuvering, whether or not in the traffic pattern, there is little room for recovery from a full stall, let alone a spin. The lack of recovery altitude, however, is not the cause of these accidents. It is the lack of knowledge of the risks, lack of judgment to avoid the danger zone, and lack of skill to escape it.

               
       "It is possible to fly without motors, but not without knowledge and skill." - Wilbur Wright        
               



Students should understand the importance and purpose of stall maneuvers, and experience them before beginning traffic pattern work. The motivation to understand them is the need to recognize the approaching stall and recover to normal flight before a stall occurs, thus precluding the spin. A brief discussion of accident statistics may be a good way to convince the student of the relevance of this training.

A spin is defined by three distinct phases: the incipient phase, the fully developed phase and the recovery.

               REVIEW: Spin Aerodynamics: Causes and Phases of a Spin

       
Your students may already possess some knowledge, and many misconceptions, about spins. Some of your more advanced students may have performed spins. However, you will still need to review spin aerodynamics with all of your students. When applying for an initial flight instructor certificate, your CFI students need to accomplish spin training in accordance with section 61.183.
               
       "The reason birds can fly and we can't is simply that they have perfect faith,
for to have faith is to have wings." - Sir James Matthew Barrie        
               
Your students need to understand that during an uncoordinated stall, the resulting roll and slip of the airplane creates a yawing moment, caused by the weathervane effect. This yawing moment in conjunction with the uncoordinated condition, causes the stall of one wing before another, which results in a roll. The ensuing roll will occur in the direction of the rudder, and is the precursor to the incipient phase of a spin. The combination of rolling, slipping, and yawing produces the autorotation characteristic of the spin.

1.        The yawing motion is due to the application of the left rudder and high induced drag on the left wing.
2.        The slip is due to crossed controls (left rudder, right aileron up.)
3.        The roll is due to a higher angle of attack on the left wing, causing it to stall before the right wing.
4.        The roll is due to differential lift. Since the right wing is not completely stalled, it produces some lift.
5.        Autorotation is due to differential lift. Since the left wing is completely stalled, it induces more drag and creates little lift.



A spin induced by an uncoordinated stall is defined by three distinct phases: the incipient phase, the fully developed phase and recovery. In the incipient phase of a spin, the motions about the vertical and longitudinal axes are developing and changing. During the fully developed phase, the airspeed and motions are stabilized, producing a consistent cycle of rotation, and the flight path is nearly vertical.



When you introduce spins to your CFI students, keep in mind that your objective is broader than simply teaching your students spin safety. You should have your CFI students teach stall/spin awareness first, then demonstrate spin entries, spins, and spin recoveries. Caution should be exercised with regard to spin training. You should review aircraft categories and the applicability of spin certification.

One source of confusion stems from the fact that 14 CFR part 23 permits airplanes to be type-certified in more than one category.  As always, it is imperative that you and your students review the appropriate AFM or POH prior to conducting spin training in a particular airplane.

Aviation is changing rapidly and as an aviation instructor you must continue to develop your knowledge and skills in order to teach successfully in this dynamic environment. Your philosophy of teaching can remain unchanged throughout your career but in order to meet the needs of your students, the methods you use to deliver your lessons must be fluid and evolve to create a learning environment in which your students can flourish.

Safety of flight is a primary responsibility; when in the practice area you and your students must be vigilant for other aircraft. Making clearing turn reduces the risk of encountering conflicting traffic.

Your students will learn from what you say as well as from what you do, so being meticulous about flight safety will teach them to do the same.











INCIPIENT SPIN
·        Lasts about 4 to 6 seconds in light aircraft.
·        Approximately 2 turns.








FULLY DEVELOPED SPIN
·        Airspeed, vertical speed, and rate of rotation are stabilized.
·        Small training aircraft lose approximately 500 feet per 3 second turn.







RECOVERY
·        Wings regain lift.
·        Training aircraft usually recover in about 1/4 to 1/2 of a turn after anti-spin inputs are applied.




               
Additional Stall/Spin Information for the Advanced Student

Non-aerobatic spins can be caused by:

·Crossed-Control Stalls - The danger zone is the approach-to-landing where a crossed-control condition may occur.

·Elevator Trim Stalls - In this case, the danger zone can be defined as a go-around in the traffic pattern.

·Secondary Stalls - Occurs with poor stall recovery technique.        
               

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